The Foundation to Human Security
Human security is defined as the combination of threats that are associated with genocide, war, and the displacement of populations; it also means freedom from the fear of violence and violence. This term was initially popularized by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) during the early 1990’s.
It were a post cold war era term and was used as a way to link a variety of economic, social and humanitarian issues purposely to alleviate the human suffering and assure the security of the people. Human security emphasizes on primarily protecting the people and at the same time providing assurance on continuous sustainable development.
In approaching human security, there is a wider range of actors that are involved that contribute to security. The actors include; security providers such as “police and military forces”, human security provides such as “civil society, development community especially non-governmental organizations that provide humanitarian aid.
The Elements of Human Security
The term vital provides that the institutions mandated to protect the human security will, at least, protect the core even when they are not able to protect every aspect of the human well-being. The identification of the vital core can only be identified via psychological or medical research, as well as awareness of threat or consensus.
Rights and Capabilities
The capabilities, in this case, comprises of the freedom to enjoys sets of doing and beings such as being able to walk about without terror threat, having to wear what one likes, being nourished and confident and having a key say making group discussion. This freedom also includes both political and civil liberties, cultural, social, economic freedoms and real opportunities that enables one to accomplish what he/she values.
Pervasive and Critical threats
One of the core objectives of the human security is to protect the people’s lives from the critical and pervasive threats. The key step is to identify these threats and the best response mechanisms to address these threats. Under these categories of threats, there are different uses analysis of risk and threats: the idiosyncratic vs. covariant risks and direct vs. the indirect risks.
The direct threats are intentionally or deliberately caused by one group to another. The groups can be either paramilitary groups, terrorists, rebels factions or states. The organs of the states can themselves threaten human security for example police forces that torture or beat prisoners. The direct threats are commonly associated with violence and can also take other forms such as deliberate economic exclusion.
Indirect threats also known as structural threats are considered as actions by systems or groups or institutions whose threat to the human security is as a result of action taken by the group or the institution for a different purpose. For example, mining or a forestry policy can have adverse environmental consequences that can erode the community subsistence or actions by the political leaders that can cause social exclusion or inequalities.
The idiosyncratic risks mainly affect individuals or families for example an illness or injury to one of the adults in a given household. The risks mainly affect groups such as communities, regional or national group, and they may include harvest failures, landslides, riots, coups, war earthquakes among others.